Coriander commonly known as Dhaniya is widely used and is important spice crop. It is rich source of vitamins and minerals such as vitamin A, vitamin C, and minerals like phosphorous, iron, calcium.
Beneficial effects of coriander leaves, seed, and root can be summarized as:
- Anti-microbial Properties: Antimicrobial activity is due to membrane damage caused by coriander oil and is effective against bacteria, fungi.
- Antioxidant: High concentration of polyphenolic compounds is present in coriander especially in leaves. Polyphenolic compounds are well known to be having good antioxidant properties by scavenging free radicals.
- Anti-diabetic properties: Coriander seeds and leaves increases glucose uptake and insulin secretion, thereby causing reduction in blood sugar levels.
- Diuretic: Diuretic are the medicines used to increase urine output. Coriander seeds extract promote diuresis and excretion of salts (electrolyte).Diuretics are used in the treatment of renal and hepatic failure, hypertension.
- Protection from acidity: Gastric mucosal protective activity: Mucus-bicarbonate barrier, endogenous prostaglandins, Surfactants in apical cell membranes helps to protect gastric mucosa. Antioxidant properties of coriander help to protect gastric mucosa by scavenging free radicals.
- Hepato-protective activity: Coriander leaves have liver protective properties due to presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds.
- Anti-Convulsant activity: Coriander seeds extracts prolonged the onset and reduces duration of seizure.
- Sedative Hypnotic Activity: The extracts and essential oil of coriander seeds possess sedative-hypnotic activity .Research have also shown anxiolytic effect caused by compound derived from seeds.
- Anti-inflammatory: Coriander leaves are traditionally used in the treatment of inflammation. Anti-inflammatory property is due inhibition of inflammation promoting substances.
- Anti-carcinogenic activity: Extract from coriander roots has shown beneficial effect in cancer prevention and its spread due to inhibition of DNA damage and blockade of cell migration.
- Lowers blood pressure: Antihypertensive activity of coriander fruits is possibly mediated through cholinergic, and /or Ca (2+) antagonist mechanisms.
- Lowers blood Cholesterol: The seeds have a significant lipid lowering action. Studies have shown lowering of levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) + very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol while increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. HDL cholesterol is considered as good cholesterol and is cardio protective.
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