Colorectal cancer is a common cancer worldwide with a low reported incidence in India. In India, the annual incidence rate for colon cancer and rectal cancer in men are 4.4 and 4.1 per 100000, respectively. The annual incidence rate for colon cancer in women is 3.9 per 100000.In India, colon cancer occurs in more young patients, have higher proportion of signet ring carcinomas, and presents with an advanced stage probably due to inadequate access to healthcare and socioeconomic factors. . The common symptoms it can present are rectal bleeding (57%), pain (44%), and altered bowel habits (26%).
Small chain fatty acids are an important component of normal gut physiology and act as a major energy source for the colon epithelial cells. They also modulate immune responses by affecting gene expression.
In a recent study, Antibiotic treatment in mice led to a reduction of the bacterial load and reduction of colonic luminal and serum Small chain fatty acids. This was linked to a noticeable global decrease of histone crotonylation in the colon tissue and stabilasation or increased amounts of HDAC2 gene. Previous studies have linked HDAC2 expression with colorectal tumor development. These findings suggest that regulating genes in gut may prevent cancer development.
Short chain fatty acids are produced by bacteria from fermentation of indigested complex carbohydrates not digested in the small intestine. These include acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Consumption of fruit, vegetables and legumes is associated with an increase in Short chain fatty acids levels. Short chain fatty acids have been linked to health promoting effects, including a reduced risk of inflammatory diseases, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
Maintenance of gut barrier function.
Control of metabolic syndrome: reduction in obesity and insulin resistance
Protect against the development of colorectal cancer
Reduces the risk of inflammatory bowel disease.
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